In Two Days I Improved Conversions By 28%. So What Went Wrong?

At National CineMedia, when it was noticed that our regional clients were only able to successfully upload their media files to us 40% of the time, I was asked to take a look.

Upon initial examination, I couldn’t understand why the completion rate would be so low, but I did have some ideas. The first thing I noticed was that the layout of the form was difficult to read, and also didn’t seem to have logical grouping, leading to user confusion. For example, is the confirmation email supposed to be for the agency or for the account director? Maybe I should just use the help bubble to find out?

Um, maybe not.

The other immediate issue was the difference between Order Number and Job Number. Does a client know the difference? It turns out, not always. In fact, on their paperwork, Job Number is actually listed as Creative Number. Also, these are both required elements. If a customer skips one because they can’t find it, the process fails. And why it fails is because we have an automated system that reads this data coming in and filters media into the right bucket. Incorrect fields break this system.

Should we use the help bubble?

Ah, and there’s another issue with the Order and Job Numbers. They have a specific format, which is not followed consistently in all of the paperwork. Put it in wrong and, yeah, you get the picture. So here’s the first step I took – redesign the form.

The first piece to this was make it vertical. If the space is available, which is is here, I always suggest this. It created a natural “step” process for the user. Look back at the old form. Do you go left to right and back to line 2, or column 1 and then 2? That kind of mental challenge is alleviated here.

Next, I put in the understanding of grouping. The top is all NCM information, the bottom is all client information. Do you wonder who’s email to use now?

Thirdly, the most common questions clients had about each field were answered in short sub-label form with each of the field labels where it made sense. Order Number and Job Number are required, and not just because we ask, but because you may miss your start if not done properly. And to ensure they are done properly, watermark text was also inserted into the field as a simple design affordance for the user.

Next, the hint bubbles were kept, but rather than some ambiguous text, they were populated with screenshots taken right from a client contract. No more wondering where to find things. Oh, and I changed the title from Job Number to Creative Number. That makes a little sense, eh?

And lastly, in the case someone still needs help, I “unhid” the ability to do so. On the old version, if you had trouble, here’s what you could see:

Not only is this really bad grammar, and slightly hidden, but it doesn’t let you know what you’re going to find. Do I really want to click this? Will it take me away from this page and delete the work I’ve already done? Overall, just a bad experience. So I brought it up into the page where it needed to be, and gave it some context.

I also added a link to a new .PDF that was a nice, visual, step-by-step guide to completing this form, just in case there was still confusion. And this was placed before the phone number, in hopes that a call was the absolute last resort. Turns out, the calls went WAY down. In fact, when related to filling out the form, they all but disappeared.

And now, the results!

Before the updates, the success rate for media uploads was around 40%. After the above changes, which were researched, designed, and developed over a two-day period, the success rate jumped up to 68%. If you were to ask me, “Hey, Brad, is a 68% success rate something to write home about?”, I would have drop my shoulders and mumble “well, no”. So what went wrong?

It’s fairly simple, actually, and I’m not going to take the blame. This site utilizes the Aspera High Speed File Transfer Software, which is a browser plugin, and a very difficult one at that. I know this is the reason for the majority of issues on the new design because we have a help desk, and those are now the calls we receive. The good news is that we identified a new tool created by Upload Care and tested this last year with our Cannes Lions contest page, where hundreds of large media files needed to be uploaded and automatically placed into folders. The success rate for this tool was 100%. It is now planned to be the replacement company-wide for Aspera.

Using Feng Shui Principles to Help Web Usability

Feng Shui, a Chinese philosophy that dates back over 3500 years, is the study of all forms of energy, including the energies of spaces, and how those energies affect people . In the last decade, Feng Shui has become a regular practice in America for architects and interior designers on every scale imaginable; it has been adopted by such well known companies as Coca Cola, Hewlett Packard and Citibank. Historically, implementation of Feng Shui models has been used primarily in three-dimensional realms, however, with parallels to design theory and environmental and behavioral psychology, it follows that principles applied in architecture and interior design could be similarly applied in two-dimensional design and provide comparable benefits. The principles of Feng Shui–flow, balance, position, color, shape, and command–provide a solution that can be incorporated into website models, thereby increasing overall website usability.

Just like architecture in buildings, websites use similar elements of form in their architecture. A website’s improper design is a distraction, much like scaffolding is to a building. Using Feng Shui principles to provide a more user friendly experience on the web will help to reduce these distractions, adding to time on page, page views and increasing overall usability.

This research will combine principles of Feng Shui and its powerful tools of expression such as color and shape, to create a new language for website design. Using this new technique, a website will be fully optimized to bring a user to their end goal. A user enters a web page with a specific goal in mind, not expecting to be subconsciously influenced. By analyzing current web design practices and environmental and behavioral psychology, web users can be persuaded to spend more time on a website while reducing the possible negative experience associated with many current Internet practices. Further, this information will provide a solution to improve and streamline the user experience. By creating this solution, incorporating these principles into today’s web design practices will not only increase website performance and usability, but also provide a new guideline that can be followed to achieve that goal.

Included is an analysis of three disciplines–web design, graphic design and psychology–as they pertain to companies’ on line presence, particularly in the success of website performance and usability. This can be achieved by combining all three disciplines under the premise that they can follow Feng Shui’s principles and be used together harmoniously. As there is no study done to date that analyzes Feng Shui and it’s integration into website creation, each field of study–Feng Shui, psychology, graphic design, and web design–will be separately analyzed and conclusions will be made where parallels are found between the three. Each section explores a basic principle of Feng Shui and how it applies to human emotion and interaction through it’s relevance to current design knowledge. This review will analyze these different practices and how previous research can be used to show where these three fields of study can work together to provide a more successful framework for web design, as it pertains to website performance and usability.

Feng Shui

Feng Shui is a body of Chinese wisdom in knowledge and experience relating to the built environment, that has accumulated over more than 3000 years. In that time, many different theories within Feng Shui have been developed for numerous applications. Most contemporary Feng Shui scholars have set up their own criteria for Feng Shui design including criteria for: architectural design, landscape models, location selection, interior design and furniture placement. There are two schools of thought in Feng Shui, the compass school and form school. Compass is more focused on the metaphysical speculations, whereas the form school is more concerned with the physical form and its surrounding environment. Because of the nature of a website–having an actual architecture and visible elements, but also existing in a virtual environment–both of these schools of thought have principles that apply to the complexity of a website and how humans act within its space. Since the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), these two schools of thought were not exclusively attached to their own methods for the practice of Feng Shui, but rather combined and integrated ideas from both. Therefore, neither school will be discussed in particular.

Almost every problem that arises in a space will relate to the flow of energy and the balance of energies. Though previous understanding of Feng Shui refers to the three-dimensional idea of the built environment, it, as well as the principles associated with Feng Shui, can also be applied to the Internet’s constructed environment. When mapping out a website, one of the starting points is creating a site map, or flow chart. This controls the way the back end or internal workings of the website will function and be organized. For the front end or the portion of a website that an on line user views, designers create a graphical user interface (GUI) to control the appearance and user navigation of the site, working in design principles which place heavy consideration on balance. From a website’s inception, flow and balance are key factors associated with its potential success and are practices to reduce problems before they arise.

Flow And Balance

Flow, also known as chi, as it relates to Feng Shui, is energy that moves through a space and affects our level of stress and our behavior. Spatial organization of a website should be used to increase a web site’s chi, providing a more comfortable and integrated user experience. Energy naturally moves in a curved motion, so with a very geometric platform on which a website is built, how can a website increase the flow of something curved? The practice of Feng Shui is an intuitive matter involving site selection and spatial organization, and it has strong parallels with the Western concept of geometry in architectural design. A website does not necessarily need to be built with more curves, but built so that the elements making up the site allow for a curved flow of energy to easily move through the space. This flow relates to composition and layout, as in design, typography and photography, but also has a more spiritual aspect, which may provide another level which can be incorporated to improve a site’s success.

A user enters a website with a specific goal in mind. Properly moving them to their goal in the shortest amount of time will directly affect a web site’s success. Components that are placed at the top of a page tend to be perceived as more important and creating a visual hierarchy on a web page can make it easier to understand, consequently making it more usable. This increased understanding of a website is achieved through analyzing flow and balance of components on the web page, and using that flow to direct the user to their goal.

Research indicates that whether a user finds a website visually appealing often has a powerful impact on forming perception of website usability. This formed perception is better understood as the first impression; the first thing we see puts our subconscious to work. Studies in eye tracking technology have shown that when a user enters a website, their first few fixations rested on the center and top of the pages, suggesting that these areas may play an important role in forming the first impression of a page. Therefore, true to Faraday’s theory of visual hierarchy, importance of a website does have a natural starting point, being the top or center of a web page. In the Feng Shui schematic design checklist, one must be aware of the impact of the first view upon entering a building. Developing good website chi requires developing a design plan that begins with understanding this focal point.

Once a focal point is found, what is it that keeps a user engaged on a website? While users may move away from a website for technical reasons (slow download) or content reasons (the information on the page), studies suggest that form can also be a reason for moving away from a website. Once the focal point has been identified, the continuation of that flow, or energy, must be created. There is an overall user preference of aesthetic content over loading speed, and the most important variable is information layout. There are two driving aesthetic factors behind a successful layout: symmetry and complexity.


Symmetry is a structural variable that reduces complexity. In architectural Feng Shui, a main entrance to a building should be in the center to create a feeling of balance. Studies in web design have found that users viewed asymmetric web pages more negatively than symmetric ones. Vertical symmetry has an impact on intuitive straightforward beauty appraisals and on classical and expressive aesthetics judgments made by the participants. With balance being an important factor in Feng Shui, and symmetry being the shortest answer to creating balance, its understandable that symmetry can benefit website usability.


As mentioned above, symmetry also reduces complexity. The reduction of complexity facilitates viewers’ processing the given information which will result in a more positive aesthetic response toward the stimulus. This positive response from reduced complexity leads the user to another important subconscious conclusion that drastically affects the success of a website. Visual design of the website results in trust, satisfaction, and loyalty. Furthermore, websites that match the users’ social and emotional perceptions are expected to increase trust and be more engaging. By simply analyzing the flow and balance of a website, one can design with a new focus on the emotional comfort of their customers.

Commanding Position

Commanding position is a theory in Feng Shui long used with the placement of furniture. For this study, the furniture in a room as seen in Feng Shui, is translated as the elements on a single web page. A website needs to make clear to everyone entering the site who is in control of the space, or what message is being conveyed. Without this initial statement, a user may not generate a first impression that their goal can be met. Similar studies to the Feng Shui principle of commanding position have been done for website usability. Pages that included a main large image were rated as the most appealing, and those that did not were rated as least appealing. The size of an object is an important factor in its perceived visual importance–the larger the item, the greater its importance and, consequently, the higher its level in the visual hierarchy. When designing a website, with the users’ goal in mind, the commanding position, or commanding image in this case, should be relevant to the main message of the website, driving a user to continue, comforted that they have reached the correct location.

Color And Shape

More than just inserting a large image or text block, shape must be a consideration. According to Feng Shui’s principles, a regular shape (rectangle, square, or round) has the most comfortable impact on an individual. This may be another reason to believe that the flow of chi does not necessarily need to be a curved flow, but reflect the flow of a user through the websites’ content.

In his work, Leonardo da Vinci used the mathematical ratio of the Fibonacci Sequence and is considered the creator of the concept of the golden rectangle, a Feng Shui principle which is a simplified version of Leonardo’s work. The golden rectangle–with a ratio of 1 to 1.618–reflects the proportions that are most often found in nature, from a flower to the proportions of a human figure, and can generate a positive aesthetic response. There are two main approaches to investigating aesthetic responses: one that investigates reactions to the whole object and one that examines reactions to isolated parts of an object. In website design, the viewable area on the majority of computer monitors is very similar to the proportions of the golden rectangle. Therefore, a proper Feng Shui approach to web design would not place any important content, or continue images or fields of information, below the fold–the section of your website that is viewed before a user has to use the scrollbar. This section reflects the whole object. The content included in the fold–text fields, images, advertisements, navigation–can also be designed with the golden rectangle in mind, particularly the image or text field used in the commanding position.

Perhaps just as important as shape in web design is color. As with flow and balance, results reveal that website color appeal is a significant determinant for website trust and satisfaction. Trust is built when, especially with Internet users, privacy is not a concern. Given that deception is particularly easy on line, consumer awareness of manipulation is higher. Applying the principles of Feng Shui such as flow, balance, shape and color can directly affect the success and overall usability of a website by addressing a consumers’ trust issues aesthetically, and on the first impression.

Consumer oriented websites that match the social and emotional perceptions of users are expected to increase trust and be more engaging. Color can be a direct link to matching these perceptions. Colors affect us both physiologically and psychologically and impacts our psyche on the conscious and subconscious levels. A web designer who aligns their content with a Feng Shui color model may be able to address the goal of their user on a whole new level.

The Bagua color theory in Feng Shui uses hues in general color areas to convey an image of the desired intentio. Colors in this theory can easily be used to enforce an emotion expected of a web user. If health is to be conveyed on a website, perhaps the color yellow should be used to build upon that user’s expectation of what they will find on the website. The primary purpose of a space is probably the most important determinant in the choice of the basic design color for that particular environment.

Feng Shui color theory specifically mentions the Bagua color theory and  the Five Elements of Colors. However, psychological studies and the effects of color on people are also taken into account to create a palette that completely represents a websites’ message. Some colors serve to arouse and excite an individual, while other colors elicit relaxation. Though in website design, little is knows about how color affects trust or satisfaction on the part of the viewer. Properly recognizing the web site’s goal and combining the proper colors to support that goal will build a strong backbone for usability and customer trust.


An underlying factor in the use of Feng Shui is the power on the subconscious mind. This subconscious effect is present from the first impression to the time someone leaves a website. One of the most powerful uses of capturing a subconscious mind is the ability to control behavior. In banner blindness–a phenomenon where users recklessly skip over any text that they deem to be fluff – the subconscious mind controls the behavior to ignore the content associated with a web banner. In web design, this control of behavior can be the difference between success and failure.

Properly combining the principles of Feng Shui – flow, balance, commanding position, shape and color–produces a new level of consumer trust in websites. According to the social presence in communication theory, by creating a feeling of warmth and human contact, websites can create a psychological connection with their users. The balance of complementary aspects of our environment, whether colors, shapes, materials, or other design components, greatly affects the way we feel and behave. Flow and balance provide a comfortable path to the user’s end goal, while shape and color provide the warmth and contact to keep them on that path, knowing they belong there because the commanding message told them, honestly, that they were.

In Conclusion

For centuries Feng Shui has been applied to many fields, and now initial observations and experiments will be made into its successful application in web design and usability. The parallels between architecture and web design allow for Feng Shui to be applied in both models. Flow, balance, position, color, shape and command all have roots in Feng Shui, architecture, and web design, and previous studies show that these principles, as delineated in Feng Shui, should translate well into increased usability on the Internet. Eye tracking data will enable a thorough and precise examination of the areas of the page that attract participants’ attention, while the heuristic will compile data from a more natural Internet experience–pointing and clicking a mouse. Though differences will likely exist between females and males, past research suggests that the majority of participants should react to the stimuli as expected, preferring the models created with Feng Shui principles incorporated.

Past studies of design psychology and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) provided a good basis to begin studying the effects of incorporating Feng Shui into this two-dimensional realm. Just as commanding position has been used in furniture placement to increase a CEO’s control over his business, Feng Shui can use commanding position to increase a website’s control of a message. Effects of color schemes on human emotion have been noted in psychology for years, and have been a large part of the Feng Shui Bagua color theory. By combining many of these studies through their documented parallels, Feng Shui will produce better web usability.

The research to be conducted only examines a small effect on web usability, therefore it is recommended that further research be conducted to identify stronger connections between Feng Shui and web usability. However, after this initial round of research, it is also expected that Feng Shui principles included in common web design practices can be a viable alternative, or powerful addition, to today’s current design models. Through this research, many successful applications of Feng Shui principles are expected to surface which, when implemented, show promise to increase a web site’s time on page, page view, and usability statistics. Using Feng Shui can improve the visual appeal of [a website], potentially leading to a higher rate of return and the attraction of more users.

With the ever-changing world of technology, web designers are constantly looking for more ways to market themselves and prove successful solutions to businesses. Concurrently, businesses are looking for better ways to achieve success over their competitors and find resources to help them in that search. This work becomes important in that it recognizes another means to differentiate a website from others in a factor not normally considered in today’s web design practices. Because of the parallels between Feng Shui and better known design practices, it is also likely that this study will open new avenues for Feng Shui to be incorporated into other two-dimensional fields, such as painting and illustration.

UX Design: Displaying Multi-Tiered Pricing and Discounts

The decision by management to start offering multi-tiered pricing to customers, as well as in-stock pricing sparked months of debates. When I received a project that required me to present management with over 35 different ways to present this pricing information to our customers, I realized it was time to stop debating and take it to our customers for the real answer. I sent out two surveys to over 300 users that had signed up for the MyArrow Impact Group and quickly solved the problem before it was time for the UI team to implement the new features.

The first immediate problem identified was the format for offering in-stock pricing:

Question: If Arrow owned inventory that it could offer for a lower price, how would you interpret the following image?

  • What price would you expect to pay per part if you were ordering:
  • 60 pieces? Correct 39/45 ($1.35)
  • 120 pieces? Correct 16/45 ($1.85)

As you can see from the answers, most users understood how this pricing would work for a purchase of 60 pieces, however, as soon as the order jumped outside the quantity range, only 16 of the 45 respondents selected the correct answer. The solution had over 93% correct answers; still not perfect, but much closer.

Now the fun part is how this solution was found. The process was a combination of surveys and competitor research. The majority of Arrow’s main competitors already used multi-tiered pricing on their websites (but not in-stock pricing). I took a look at each of their presentations and used them to customize Arrow’s pricing scheme, which I then took to the customer.

Question 1: In your opinion, which of the following methods best displays products with quantity breaks?

In question 1, I took the most common multi-tiered pricing displays and found that option C had over 78% of the vote. No debates there. I then catered question 2 to whichever option they chose in question 1 (using the most popular answer for this explanation).

Question 2: In your opinion, which of the following methods best displays products with quantity breaks?

As you can see, in question 2, I showed the quantities in that users’ favorite style and introduced alternate methods of displaying all the pricing information. In this scenario, 80% of respondents chose option B.

For the 3rd and final question regarding display of multi-tiered pricing, I wanted to find out if availability or pricing was more important to the users.

Question 3: In your opinion, which layout provides the best information for making your purchasing decision?

67% of users selected A as the preferred display helping them to their purchasing decision. The multi-tiered pricing project was a resounding success, providing very solid data from users surveyed as to how this information should be presented.

So why all this work for one simple display of pricing? Simple! This is where sales are made. Pricing is displayed in the search results, in a bill of materials, on 3rd party websites, and most importantly, in the cart where the purchase is made. In the example above, if only 35% of users even understand what they will be charged for a purchase, how many of them will still want to go through with it? The power of the data collected in this project is enough to assure management that there will be a solid return on investment.

To solidify the reasoning for multi-tiered pricing, additional questions were asked:

Would seeing a price difference on the next highest quantity break lead you to increase your quantity for that part?

How important is it to know quantity breaks when buying components?

It seems that even though this type of pricing may not lead to more sales, in a competitive market where other companies are offering this service, users have grown to expect it.

This is an example of validating the need and usefulness of a value added service. View the risk management UX project post for an example of when to kill a project.

Lean UX and The Enterprise Architecture – Part I

Spectrum of User Experience

Unlike the Graphical User Interface (GUI), which only connected marketing, technology, and the user through a façade, User Experience (UX) in the enterprise incorporates the way people perceive a design, use the product, and how they make decisions. In fact, UX is a very broad term that encompasses many smaller categories, all with the goal of creating a better product, whereas GUI is laser focused on the graphical presentation of a product.

From my early time at NCM, I had seen my own UX title represented many different ways, from architect, to designer, to developer. I had yet to see researcher, but this would also fit just fine. These title changes are due to a combination of factors. First, the general infancy of the term User Experience brings with it a lack of understanding around what it means. For some, it is simply the User Interface (UI) design, or what most closely relates to the deprecated GUI role. For others, the UX role is a developer that builds the UI graphically, as well as in code functioning as a prototype, or leaving it ready to accept the logic piece. This leads to the second reason, and that is that UX really does have multiple titles within the main UX category. Many companies will separate research from design, development, testing etc. The below image is an example of all the areas within a business, shown with UX at the center. This, however, does not break out UX into its different areas of focus, which are then seen on the outside as sub-containers.

Spectrum of User Experience
Based on design by Information Architects, Inc.

With the UX role built into the process at NCM as a floating specialist, my concern is that the role is being utilized on an “as seen fit” basis. This could result in the aforementioned siloed view of the role, circumventing the deep knowledge of a project required to properly implement UX in its most cohesive form. Instead of “as seen fit”, UX should be looked at through the idea “how does it fit” throughout the software development life cycle (SDLC). Any fragmentation of knowledge leads to miscommunication and ineffective design.

I should also note that not only is the “as seen fit” implementation apt to be siloed, to this point the floating specialist (me) has been utilized more as a UI role called upon when needed, with that need being identified through the stakeholder request of a new UI integration or change. Much of the time, these new feature or change requests are only being initiated because of underlying bad UX and should be looked at from the root of the problem in a proactive manner, rather than the more common reactive response.

UX professionals listen intently to stakeholders and users. Being involved in the early design sessions through to the launch of a product and beyond allows for the frequent collection of team-wide feedback and will minimize waste. Placing a UX iteration step into each business cell will lend itself to building a true lean UX process into the SDLC.

The deliverables from the UX practice must be constantly integrated into the lean process to assure the least amount of waste — work ultimately forgotten or not used in development of the product. That being said, lean is light and fast, so emphasis on deliverables should be lessened in lieu of actual experience design. In short development cycles this isn’t even an option. Achieving this shift from deliverable -> experience design is heavily weighted on the UX factor being truly collaborative during every cycle of the SDLC. Deliverables are not worked on and completed, but rather iterated on throughout.

Lean UX Process as created by @jboogie
Lean UX Process as created by @jboogie

The question becomes, where, and more importantly, how does this all fit in to the rest of the process? The first step is to make sure that UX is heavily involved in the design phase of development. This focus on earlier insights ensures that UX is aligned with the business vision, provides direction to developers prior to their work beginning, and flushes out creative thinking through increased collaboration.

My job is as much to create the experience as it is to organize and analyze the feedback that manifests through this collaboration, which in turn feeds the experience. Integration throughout the entire design process will result in an experience design that is infinitely greater than work I would create if involvement were minimal or “as seen fit”. As the sole UX expert in the Enterprise Information Systems department, my job is to use an entire toolkit of sketching, presenting, critiquing, researching, testing, prototyping and wireframing as they are appropriate for each development cycle, and for each problem that needs solving.

In order to cover all these bases, I cannot be in a cell myself; however, my particular “jobs” can be incorporated into cells. If the above iteration diagram were my products, how would each of these fit into the product families for each of the cells being created? That is what I’m hoping to solve and embed into our new lean environment.  I’m hoping this blog can serve as a launching point for my research into how this can be done. Based on our current process, I intend to move forward by looking at each deliverable above: concept, prototype, validate, test, analyze & research, and iterate, and make a game plan for assuring UX and the lean work cell are one highly functional factory of awesomeness!